Adipic acid, also known as hexanedioic acid, is a white crystalline organic compound (C6H11O4), is derived from the oxidations of various fats. This organic compound is the most important synthetic dicarboxylic acid produced annually. It has a slight acidic taste and a very faint odor. Also, it is less soluble in water and is soluble in alcohol and acetone. Adipic acid is used as precursor in manufacture of nylon. It is also used in chemical industry to produce other polymers, detergents, plasticizers and coatings.
Esters of adipic acid which are known as adipates are used as softeners in plastic and as synthetic grease base oils. Adipic acid causes serious damage to eyes and is mildly toxic so it should be handled carefully. This acid produced mild to no skin irritation, whereas its powdered form may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose of humans.
Adipic acid is produced through a two-stage process. The first stage of manufacturing usually involves the oxidation of cyclohexane to form cyclohexanone/cyclohexanol mixture. The second stage entails oxidizing this mixture with nitric acid to produce adipic acid. N2O is produced as a byproduct during the nitric acid oxidation stage and is potentially emitted in the waste gas stream during which N2O is generated in the second stage.
Turpentine Oil - Overview
Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, gum turpentine) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from trees, mainly pine trees. It is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. It has a potent odor similar to that of nail polish remover. It is sometimes known colloquially as turfs, but this more often refers to turpentine substitute (or mineral turpentine).
Turpentine is not a pure substance but a complex mixture of terpenes, particularly large proportion of pinene (bicyclic monoterpenic hydrocarbon), a compound from which camphor is manufactured. Terpene is a class of naturally occurring unsaturated hydrocarbons whose carbon skeletons are composed exclusively of isoprene C5 units (CH2=C(CH3)-CH=CH2). The stepwise distillation with water and carbonates yields terpenes. The water solubility of turpentine oil is negligible. But it is miscible in absolute alcohol and ether. It boils at about 155 – 185 C and its specific gravity is ranged from 0.86 to 088. It dissolves sulphur, phosphorus and resins. Turpentine is used chiefly as a solvent in paints, vanishes and waxes, and in making camphor, inks and other products.
Turpentine has long been used as a solvent, mixed with beeswax or with carnauba wax, to make fine furniture wax for use as a protective coating over oiled wood finishes (e.g., lemon oil). Turpentine is also added to many cleaning and sanitary products due to its antiseptic properties and its “clean scent”. It is also used as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical compounds. As a solvent, turpentine is used for thinning oil-based paints, for producing varnishes, and as a raw material for the chemical industry. Its industrial use as a solvent in industrialized nations has largely been replaced by the much cheaper turpentine substitutes distilled from crude oil.
|IUPAC Name||Hexanedioic Acid|
|Molecular Weight||146.14 g mol-1|
|Synonyms||1,6 - hexanedioic acid|
|Adipic Acid Content||99.5% (min)|
|Melting Point||151.5 °C|